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Physiognomic Head (Head of Character no. 18), 1778
Franz Xaver Messerschmidt (1736-1783)
Location unknown

Kris, E. (1930).  Über eine gotische Georgs-Statue und ihre nächsten Verwandten – Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Österreichischen Skulptur im frühen 15. Jahrhundert. Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, 4, 121-154.

The statue fragments of St. George were discovered by the pastor of a Gothic church in the small town of Grossloming at Knittelfeld and were reconstructed by Dr. Karl Ginhart.  Kris provides an extensive iconographic and formal discussion of the statue believed to have been executed between the end of the 14th and early 15th centuries based on similarities with contemporary works.  This attribution corresponds with the era of Maximillan, which honored the religious significance of the saint.  Descriptions of two types of St.George statues are noted; both are related to the Aurea legend.  

Kris, E.  (1930).  Materialien zur Biographie des Annibale Fontana und zur Kunsttopographie der Kirche S. Maria Presso S. Celso in Mailand – Mit einem archivalischen Anhang.  Mitteilungen des kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz, 3, 201-253.

Kris provides an extensive discussion of the sculptors Stoldo Lorenzi and Annibale Fontana in the context of archival material pertaining to the façade and interior of S. Maria Presso S. Celso in Milan executed between 1680-1690.  The artistic activity of the Florentine Lorenzi is compared and contrasted with the Milanese Fontana.  Fontana’s work as a bronze sculptor and lapidary is discussed to reveal his influence on the artistic activity of Milanese goldsmiths as well as his decisive influence on the development of Milanese sculpture.  An attempt is made to provide a chronological discussion of his oeuvre in order to elucidate the debate surrounding stylistic issues

Kris, E.  (1930).  Notes on Renaissance Cameos and Intaglios. Metropolitan Museum Studies, 1-13.

Although scholars, like Adolf Furtwängler, focused on the study of Greek and Roman gem engraving by examining iconography, Kris notes that the development of modern gem engraving has largely gone uninvestigated.  By examining a few rare Renaissance cameos and intaglios, Kris shows that by the end of the 15th century, antique models were no longer used, and a marked regionalism is noted. Works by Francesco Anichini, Domenico dei Cammei, Nicolo Avanzi, Gian Giacomo Caraglio, Leone Leoni, and Alessandro Masnago are discussed in the context of formal, literary, historical, and technical data. Paleography and type of stone are used to determine attribution and date.

Kris, E.  (1931, December).  Zum Werke Peter Flötners und zur Geschichte der Nürnberger Goldschmiedekunst – I. Ein Kokosnussbecher. Pantheon, 8, 496-499.

In the 1750 inventory of the Royal “Schatzkammer,” a coconut goblet in theViennaKunsthistorischesMuseum is listed as being linked to the work of Peter Flötner ca.1540s.  Although the letter N in Roman script is engraved at the base of the goblet, connecting it with the Nürnberg school, the mark of a specific goldsmith is not extant.  The medaillons represent biblical scenes of a homecoming and the intoxication of Noah and his daughters.   Based on Neudörfer’s report, Kris argues that the medaillons and other parts of the goblet were executed by Flötner and bear striking resemblance to Flötner’s wooden clog goblet representing a bacchanal scene. 

Kris, E.  (1932).  Catalogue of Postclassical Cameos in the Milton Weil Collection. Vienna: Antron Schroll & Company.

In 1929, Kris had the opportunity to study the Milton Weil collection of postclassical cameos on permanent loan to The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.  Although the Weil collection consists of rare examples of the late Roman, Byzantine, and Medieval periods, there exists a large and unique sample from the Renaissance period.  During the Renaissance, many cameos were copies of classical subjects characterized by superior technical execution intended to deceive connoisseurs. Also, in the Renaissance, the gem cutting technique, which utilized layers and colors of stone, such as the onyx, focused on the Negro as subject.  A double cameo of Flemish origin demonstrates that by the 16th century, stone engraving was found in the North.  During the Baroque, there existed use of stones such as agate, jasper, and heliotrope.   18th-19th century cameos in the Weil collection are represented by Amastini, David, Girometti, Hecker, Natter, Pestrini, Pichler, Pistrucci, Rega, and Saulini.

Kris, E.  (1933).  Ein geisteskranker Bildhauer.  Imago,Lps, 19, 384-411. (Presented at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, 24.11.1952; first published in 1932 as “Die Charakterköpfe des Franz Xaver Messerschmidt, Versuch einer historischen und psychologischen Deutung,”  Jahrbuch den kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, 6.

Kris states he opposes the psychoanalytic method of pathography in this study because he doubts much of the biographical data on Messerschmidt.  Nevertheless, he cites convincing passages from the Empress Maria Theresa and Friedrich Nicolai’s Beschreibung einer Reise durch Deutschland und die Schweiz im Jahre 1781, Band VI, which describes Messerschmidt’s psychosis characterized by paranoid thinking.  Kris points out the 18th century interest in physiognomy in the work of Lavater, Lichtenberg, and Goethe but argues that Messerschmidt’s work is inconsistent with that tradition, since his work depicts the change in facial musculature in different situations and not affect.  These studies are closer to the work of the 18th century English anatomist Parsons. According to Nicolai, the busts do not represent the use of any specific model but instead represent a mirage of Messerschmidt’s face. The grimacing faces of Messerschmidt’s busts represent a regression to use an artistic medium to ward off menacing apparitions in a magical way to heal himself (“Selbstheilung”) and readjust to reality. Almost 100 busts were produced, of which twenty-nine are illustrated here.

Kris, E.  (1932).  Georg Höfnagel und der wissenschaftliche Naturalismus.  Festschrift für Julius Schlosser zum 60. Geburtstage. Vienna:  Amalthea Verlag.

Kris discusses Georg Höfnagel’s (1542-1600) oeuvre in the context of his travels and his humanist interests; he wrote Latin Poemata, and was extolled by Carel van Mander his biographer.  Hoefnagel was known for his book ornaments and topographical studies as well as studies of nature, including flowers and animals.  In addition, he created grotesques and abstruse allegories, and he nicknamed himself “inventor hieroglyphicus et allegoricus.” However, in the court of Rudolf II, he was surrounded by contemporaries, who created similar works; these included:  Hanns Hofmann, Daniel Fröschel, the Meriam, Wenzel Hollar, Lucas Valkenborch, and others.  Perhaps, the court painter Jacopo Ligozzi’s (1547-1626) oeuvre reflects the most notable stylistic parallel with Hoefnagel’s so-called naturalist style ca.1600.

Kris, E.   (Ed.).   (1932).  Goldschmiedearbeiten des Mittelalters, der Reniassance und des Barock.  Arbeiten in Gold und SilberErster Teil. Publikationen aus den kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, 5.  Wien: Anton Schroll & Company.

Part 1 consists of works by Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque goldsmiths executed in gold and silver.  Part 2 consists entirely of enamel works and focuses on a few workshops that were closely connected with the Austrian court.  Due to the vast holdings in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Kris selected works from the early 18th century that illustrated superior technique and quality and were associated with religious art.  Many of these works had not been mentioned in other catalogs, which focused on ivories, drinking vessels made of semi-precious stones, clocks and other mechanical apparatuses.  Oriental and Russian works were also excluded from Kris’ catalog because he believed they should receive separate art historical consideration. The citation of older literature provides models for the inventoried works.  Finally, the goldsmith marks, which had not been published, are taken from Marc Rosenberg’s book, Der Goldschmiedemerkzeichen, 1911.

Kris, E.  (1932, January-June).  Zum Werke Peter Flötners und zur Geschichte der Nürnberger Goldschmiedekunst – II.  Ein Pokal von Jacob Fröhlich. Pantheon, 9, 28-32.

In 1606, the Guild of London Embroiders acquired a gold-silver goblet by the Nürnberg goldsmith Jacob Fröhlich as indicated by engraved marks of the master.  Formal aspects of the goblet, which relate to the style of Peter Flötner are:  the middle band of the cup, which is decorated with biblical scenes and the cover, which depicts landscape elements.   Kris indicates Fröhlich was also influenced by the workshop of Wenzel Jamnitzer and draws additional formal parallels with goblets from theMetropolitanMuseum inNew York, a crystal goblet in the James Rothschild collection inChantilly, as well as goblets by Matthias Zündt, and the “Meisters der Kraterographie von 1551.”

Kris, E.  (1932, Janurary-June).  Zum Werke Peter Flötners und zur Geschichte der Nürnberger Goldschmidekunst – III.  Eine Zeichnung Wenzel Jamnitzers.  Pantheon, 9, 95-98.

Born in Vienna in 1508, Wenzel Jamnitzer became a Nürnberg goldsmith in 1534.  Kris draws parallels between formal elements of Jamnitzer’s 1537 drawing, Astronomia  (London, Sammlung Henry Oppenheimer), with a series of plaques by Flötner between 1537 and 1543. Although Jamnitzer adopts models of his Nürnberg contemporaries, the proportions of his figures in the 1537 drawing, and in a Silver Mug (Petersburg, Hermitage), are elongated and mask the Mannerist linea serpintinata in a Gothic manner.

Kris, E.  (1932).  Georg Pencz als Deckenmaler:  Nachträgliche Notizen.  Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für vervielfältigende Kunst – Beilage der Graphischen Künste, 65-67.

In 1925, K.T. Parker showed Kris a drawing by Georg Pencz located in the University College in London.  Kris notes a significant parallel between the London drawing with the Pencz ceiling painting in the Volkamer Garden House, the topic of Kris’ 1923 article. Kris further notes two other studies, which prove Pencz painted the ceiling in the Volkamer Garden House; they include:  a study in the Louvre (Paris) and a study in the Albertina (Vienna).  The Louvre study depicts two male nudes decidedly foreshortened; one holds a board, the other holds a hook.  Significant is that this study matches Sandrat’s description in his Teutsche Akademie.   Although the Albertina study bears Albrecht Dürer’s monogram, and is briefly noted by von Lippmann as a work by Dürer, Kris argues against this attribution based on a thick superimposition of watercolor.  Both studies probably originated in the last decade of the 16th century, which corresponds to the date of the Hirsch aviary; however, Kris believes that the Louvre study is closer in style.  Both studies could not have been completed without knowledge of Italian models

Kris, E.  (1933).  Introduction and Catalogue.  In Die Karikaturen des Dantan, Paris-London, 1831-1839.  Ausstellung im Corps de Logis der Neuen Hofburg (n.p.). Wien: KunsthistorischesMuseum.

Jean Pierre Dantan (1800-1869) was born in Paris, the son of a little known painter.  Educated in Paris and Italy, Dantan the younger was known for his portrait sculptures as well as a representative portrait artist during the reign of Louis Philippe.  However, his studio located in the Rue St. Lazare in Paris, also known as “Dantanorama,” displayed small statuettes that were caricatures of famous contemporary personages based upon contemporary lithographs.  This exhibit assembles a collection of Dantan’s caricatures found in a collection of an Austrian palace; the caricatures were executed between 1831-1839 during the height of his career in London and Paris. On the pedestal of many statuettes is a rebus, i.e., a representation of syllables or words through the use of pictures in order to curiously disguise the analysis of the subject’s name. The quality of Dantan’s oeuvre is comparable to the works of Paul Gavarni and Honoré Daumier as illustrated in Dantan’s Paganini.

Kris, E., & Pauker, W.  (1933).  Der östereichische Erzherzogshut im Stifte Klosterneuburg.  Historisch und kunsthistorische betrachtet.  Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in WienNeue Folge, 7, 229-248.

Pauker presents an examination of the Austrian Archduke’s crown in Klosterneuburg as a historical piece; however, Kris becomes absorbed in a discussion of its historical significance in the context of its iconography from the perspective of applied art.  Based upon a formal discussion, it is shown not only how the Klosterneuburg crown differs from older types of crowns, but also how it remains within the royal tradition dating back to the reign of Rudolf IV (1359-1365), as found in his portrait, as well as in the sculpture of Vienna cathedrals, most notably St. Stephan’s.  In addition, the international character of gold enamel embellishment is dated to the second half of the 16th-early 17th centuries and linked to works executed during the reign of Rudolf II and Matthias. A discussion of the significance of the enamel paint and gems is also provided.

Kris, E.  (1934).  Die Arbeiten des Gabriel de Grupello für den Wiener Hof.  Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, 8, 205-224.

Kris discusses the oeuvre of Gabriel de Grupello in the context of his service to Karl II and Karl VI at the Vienna court beginning in 1704.  Born in the Netherlands, Grupello began his apprenticeship in the workshop of Artus Quellinus the elder and afterwards traveled to Paris where he collaborated in the execution of a variety of famous works. In Brusselles, Grupello’s works show the influence of French Classicism and influenced other Netherlanders, such as Martin Bogaert (a.k.a. Desjardins), Lucas Faidherbe, and Francois Duquesnoy.  In 1668, Grupello went to Paris where Gianlorenzo Bernini’s influence was paramount.  Kris notes that Grupello’s works depict a “free” interpretation and transformation of Bernini’s style; however, the treatment of details remains closely connected with the Dutch tradition of Artus Quellinus. Primary literary sources pertaining to the origin of the busts are not extant.  Kris is of the opinion that Grupello’s oeuvre in theVienna court consisted not only of statues and busts but also reliefs.

Kris, E.  (1934).  Beiträge zur Kunsttätigketit am österreichischen Kaiserhofe im 17. Jahrhundert.  Vorbemerkung.  Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, 8, 197-198.

Kris departs from Julius von Schlosser and Rudolf Berliner’s approach to provide a picture of the past by discussing the role of Austrian court art collectors.  In doing so, Kris and Heinrich Klapsia collaborated to connect the sociological structure of the cultural surroundings of the court artists with the “attitude” of art patronage in the first quarter of the 17th century. 

Kris, E.  (1934, April).  Zur Italienischen Glyptik der Renaissance. Pantheon, 116-119.

In the 1930’s, the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum acquired a Crystal Goblet from the Kremsmünster Foundation in Upper Austria.  Based on an examination of form, ornament, and technique, Kris attributes its execution to works of Milan, which dates to the second half of the 16th century.  More specifically, the deep undercutting of the ornaments and enamel mounting, as well as the engraved figures of the river gods, female cardinal virtues, and vegetation, point significantly to the works of the Saracchi workshop. Kris notes another formal parallel with the plaques of the cardinal virtues by Peter Flötner, which dates between 1660-1690.  The Mannerist style evidenced in Flötner represents a development in German art of this period, as well as a parallel with the execution of an applied art inMilan.

Kris, E., & Kurz, O.  (1934).  Die Legende vom Künstler:  Ein historischer Versuch.  Wien:  Krystall Verlag.  (Translated by Alastair Laing and revised by Lottie M. Newman.   Additions to the original text were made by Otto Kurz).  Legend, Myth, and Magic in the Image of the Artist,New Haven:YaleUniversity Press, 1979).

Kris and Kurz offer a historical treatment of artistic biographies through an examination of sociological phenomenon and anecdotes about artists based on literary accounts.  Kris develops this treatment from a psychological vantage in his 1935 article,  Zur Psychologie älterer Biographik, see below.

Kris, E.  (1934, February).  Neuerwerbungen der Sammlungen für Plastik und Kunstgewerbe im Wiener Kunsthistorischen Museum. Der Wiener Kunstwanderer, 2 (2), 25-27.

In this brief article, Kris mentions the significance of the art collection of the Austrian church, which is indicative of an important spiritual relationship between the church and the court.  Several works Leo Planiscig acquired for the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum are mentioned. A gilded bronze relief (11th c.) is clearly related to the art of 11th century Salzburg.  A silver gilded and enameled altar (2nd half 14th century) originated in the eastern region of France; both relief and altar are part of the Salzburg Cathedral’s treasury.  Kris attributes a crystal goblet to the workshop of Saracchi in Milan around 1580; the motifs are similar to those found in the oeuvre of Peter Flötner in Nürnberg.  Finally, Kris attributes an equestrian bronze of Kaiser Leopold I to the great Flemish sculptor Gabriel de Grupello, who shared close artistic relations with the Austrian court.

Kris, E.  (1934).  Zur Psychologie der Karikatur. Imago,Lps., 20, 450-466.  (Presented at the 13th International Psychoanalytic Congress in Lucerne August 26-31, 1934.  An expansion of this paper, The psychology of caricature,” International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 1936, 17, 285-303 is for the most part, similar in content, and might well be considered a translation of the 1934 article).

Kris presents a discussion of the psychology of caricature as reflected in sociological and clinical material as well as in observations of children.  Kris chooses to discuss an aspect of the comic (i.e., caricature), which has received little attention in analytic literature and makes general reference to general analytic theories of the comic as his departure point. Like dreams, Kris indicates that the formal aspects of caricature can be understood as primary process thinking “in the service of the ego.”  Similarly, Freud’s early contribution of the comic made the same assumption in terms of the study of wit and dreams. Caricature is a form of graphic wit, that is,  it depicts in an overt manner what is covert in wit.  Just as wit refers to certain verbal expressions, so too does caricature refer to characteristic elements found in children’s drawings.  This further asserts a parallel with primary process thinking in the development of children’s thought processes in the context of Jean Piaget. The adult comic eludes forms of censorship and admonitions of the superego to assume mastery over libidinal and aggressive tendencies. The exaggeration of features in the caricature is produced to evoke a response from the observer and not from the one whom is depicted. 

Kris, E., & Planiscig, L.  (1935).  Katalog der Sammlungen für Plastik und Kunstgewerbe.  Führer durch die Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, 27.

The authors of this catalog document the newly arranged collection of the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum in twenty rooms; each room focuses on the historical, stylistic, or cultural milieu of a period.  Significant is the assembly of church art as well as masterpieces of Medieval Austrian sculpture.  The rooms are arranged as follows: 1) Vestments of the Golden Fleece order of the Hapsburg; 2) 15th century Austrian Art; 3) Medieval Italian Sculpture; 4) Early and Late Medieval Art; 5) Medieval Sculpture; 6) Frederick III and the Late Gothic; 7) Maximillan I and the Early German Renaissance; 8) Ferdinand I and the German Renaissance; 9) Renaissance Clocks and Mechanical Objects; 10) Italian Renaissance; 11) French Renaissance; 12) Ferdinand of the Tirol and his circle; 13) Karl V and the Italian High and Late Renaissance; 14) Rudolf II and his Treasury; 15) Ferdinand II, Ferdinand III and his art; 16) Late Renaissance and Baroque Sculpture; 17) Leopold I and the Turks; 18) Baroque Minor Arts; 19) Maria Theresa and her art; 20) Exotic works of the Emperor’s property.

Kris, E.  (1935).  Zur Psychologie älterer Biographik, (dargestellt an der des bildenden Künstlers).  Imago,Lps., 21, 320-344. 

Kris observes that artistic biographies were discussed in terms of a fable, that is, teacher discovers talent in his pupil or the artist encounters a disabling factor, such as poverty or deformity, which acts as a catalyst for personal development through the formation of works of art.  Artists discussed include:  Cimabue and Giotto, Hephaestus, and Pygmalion.  More recent attempts demonstrate the use of psychobiography.

Kris, E.  (1936).  Bemerkungen zur Bildnerei der Geisteskranken. Imago,Lps., 22, 339-370. (Presented as a lecture Die Bildnerei der Geisteskranken in psychoanalytischer Betrachtung at the Akademischen Verein für medizinische Psychologie  inVienna 28.5.1936)

Kris’ investigation is based to a lesser extent on art historical issues and emphasizes clinical-psychiatric literature, which has not been systematically summarized.  A brief discussion of Cesare Lombroso, Hans Prinzhorn,  F. Mohr, Bertschinger, Oskar R. Pfister, and Hermann Rorschach is given. Significant is the fact that patients in a psychosis produce art, which is considered as an attempt to come to terms with reality.  Although 2% of disturbed patients ever turn to art, schizophrenics rendered almost 75% and maniacs only 8%.  Characteristic of psychotic patients is scribbling, which does not reveal an improvement in technique or style over time and is considered to be an automatic and unconscious process often displaying geometric and decorative patterns (horror vacui).  Despite mass production, one cannot refer to an oeuvre. 20 schizophrenic images are discussed and reproduced.

Kris, E.  (1936, November-December).  Introduction. In Honoré Daumier; Zeichnungen, Aquarelle, Lithographien, Kleinplastiken.  Wien:  Graphische Sammlung Albertina.

In this brief introduction, Kris cites a quote from Charles Baudelaire to illustrate the significance of Honoré Daumier’s oeuvre in 19th- century France not only in caricature but also in modern art.  Daumier’s caricatures of daily life and the 1830 Revolution were published in two important journals, Caricature and Charivari.  In the context of the Press Law of September 1835, Daumier directed attention to political satire through the famous political cartoon figure Robert Macaire to depict the profiteers of the regime. The small stauette, Ratapoil, as well as its depiction in numerous lithographs, is the personification of a political concept as the gravedigger of the Republic.  Finally, Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet and Denis Raffet, as well as Peter Paul Rubens, Francisco Goya, Théodore Géricault, and Rembrandt van Rijn, influenced Daumier’s artistic activity. 

Kris, E., & Planiscig, L.  (1936, June-July).  III.  Ausstellung.  Kleinkunst der Italienischen Frührenaissance.  Katalog und Vorwort.  Wien: KunsthistorischesMuseum.

This exhibit focuses on art of the early Italian Renaissance and follows two previous exhibits:  the first on Christian Art, and the second on Dantan. The small catalog lists seventy-one works indicating the title of the work, artist (if known), its material, measurements, and collection, as well as where it is mentioned in art historical literature.  Single works are not highlighted in the introduction, but it is noted that the earliest free-standing bronze statuettes of the Renaissance, the sculpture of Andrea Riccio and the most important cut crystal of the early 15th century are in the exhibit.

Kris, E.,  & Planiscig, L.  (1936-1937).  IV. Ausstellung.  Bozzetti und Modelletti der Spätrenaissance und des Barock.  Katalog und Vorwort. Wien:KunsthistorischesMuseum.

This exhibit is unique because it assembles two important types of studies used by sculptors in the late Renaissance and the Baroque.  Bozzetto refers to the “first idea” rendered in clay by the sculptor; modelletto refers to the “final idea” to be realized in a durable medium.  The exhibit consists of both studies extending from the middle of the 16th century to the end of the 18th century.  Studies by artists, such as Andrea Sansovino, Alessandro Vittoria, Giambologna, Gianlorenzo Bernini, Alessandro Algardi, Ercole Ferrata, Giovan Morlaiter, Jan de Beyer, and Hagenauer are represented.  The authors acknowledge the 4-volume work, Barock-Bozzetti by A.E. Brinckmann, who was the first to systematically organize this genre.

Kris, E., & Planiscig, L.  (1937, September-October).  V. Ausstellung:  Gefälschte Kunstwerke.  Katalog.  Wien: KunsthistorischesMuseum.

The authors have assembled “fake” works of art, which are not to be observed for aesthetic reasons, but rather to raise and answer the question:  How does one recognize a fake work of art?    A systematic exhibit of fakes is not intended, but rather the exhibit assists the observer to determine through formal observation the similarities and differences between fakes and originals in theViennaKunsthistorischesMuseum. The works of public and private owners are exhibited; however, the provenance and reason for acquisition are not stated. Brief annotations of each work and illustrations are provided.

Kris, E.  (1938).  Ego development and the comic.  International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 19, 77-90.  (Presented at the British Psychoanalytical Society, May 24, 1937).

Kris presents a discussion of the terms wit, humor, and the comic.  He defines the comic in terms of brevity of thought and the need for an observer and an observed.  Three types of comic are discussed in relation to ego psychology: naivete, clumsiness, and stupidity. Since the significance of the comic implies regression and a return to childhood, the discussion focuses on elements dominating childhood play, such as mastery of the plaything, repetition in play, and coming to terms with one’s environment.  However, most comic aspects are understood in the context of dealing with “past conflicts of the ego” as the individual’s use of a defense mechanism to overcome fear and anxiety. 

Kris, E., &  Gombrich, E. H.  (1938).  The principles of caricature. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 17, 319-342.  (Also reprinted in Psychoanalytic Explorations in Art).

The authors present a discussion as to why caricature originated at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries. The goal of caricature is to depict the essential features of a person without idealization and to exaggerate aspects of those features to the point of deformity in order to damage character.  Due to its aggressive imagery, which anchors it to a specific cultural context, caricature does not achieve any aesthetic effect and cannot develop over time.  For this reason, caricature is not a form of “art,” but rather a psychological mechanism. Illustrations from the 17th century to the present are included.

Kris, E.  (1939). On inspiration (Preliminary notes on emotional conditions in creative states). International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 20, 377-389.

Kris presents a discussion of the etymology of the word inspiration and its relationship to psychological issues in terms of its metaphorical and clinical meanings. The clinical aspect of “inspired states” bears resemblance to epileptic states or hysterical symptoms. Inspiration is related to certain complex psychological processes in which a regression occurs, thereby rescinding ego control of higher mental processes and permitting preconscious and unconscious material to assume a significant role.  In a creative state, individuals display either elated or depressed moods, can be either in good or poor health, and usually exhibit a degree of desexualization.  Two cases are briefly discussed.

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