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1940-1949

After you, please (Disarmament negotiations) 1868

Honoré Daumier (1808-1879)

Kris, E., & Gombrich, E. H.  (1940)  Caricature.  Harmondsworth: Middlesex.

The authors trace the social and artistic development of caricature from the Antique to Modern times.  It is significant to note that comic art was usually considered inferior, because it did not represent an ideal or embody the artist’s “pure vision.” Despite the fact that the distortion of an individual was considered taboo in Antiquity, numerous statuettes of comic types can be found.  During the Middle Ages, comic distortion was used to depict sinners or the fop, in order to impart a “moral lesson.”  Although Leonardo da Vinci is sometimes considered the first portrait caricaturist as manifested in his grotesque heads, there exists no clear evidence of modern caricature prior to 1600.  Annibale Carracci (1560-1609) is considered the father of modern caricature as he stated the task of the caricaturist:  “to grasp the perfect deformity, and thus reveal the very essence of a personality.” Some other caricaturist’s included are:  Pier Leone Ghezzi, William Hogarth, George Marquess of Townshend, James Gillray, Charles Philipon, and Honoré Daumier.

Kris, E.  (1940).  Das Lachen als mimischer Vorgang Beiträge zur Psychoanalyse der Mimik. Internationale Zeitung Psychoanalyse & Imago, 24, 146-168. [Translated as: (1940). “Laughter as an expressive process:  Contributions to the psycho-analysis of expressive behaviour.” International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 21, 314-341, and presented as “Bemerkungen über das Lachen, Beitrag zur Psychologie der Mimik” (Presented at the XIV. International Psychoanalytic Congress in Marienbad, August 2-8, 1936.)

Kris focuses on a discussion of laughter by raising two questions:  when does one laugh? and how does one laugh?  The departure point for the discussion is that laughter is a somatic process, which has its basis in the physiological movement of the rib muscles during the expiration process and involves the entire body. However, psychoanalytic research demonstrates that the imitative process and the somatic process of the human body cannot be separated and should be examined in the context of psychoanalytic ego-psychology. Significant is the fact that the imitative process of laughter is transferred into a motor process and vice versa.  In the process of its development, the infant learns to coordinate its muscular movement, especially through sucking, and between the fourth and sixth year gains control of its bodily movement.  Simultaneously, the child demonstrates an undifferentiated reaction to pleasure and dislike.    Laughter is a social act, in which the controlling functions of the ego are loosened, thereby permitting a regression. In this way, expressive behavior in the form of laughter or smiling results.  A discussion of laughter in neurotics and psychotics show that empty laughter or unhindered laughter can be regarded as a regression revealing a total expression of an uncontrollable id or lack thereof, whereas, smiling is regarded as an ego function exercising control over unrestrained impulses of the id. Laughter is considered an aspect of humans only.

Kris, E.  (1941). The ‘danger’ of propaganda. American Imago, 2 (1), 3-42 (Presented at the Boston Psycho-Analytic Society, January 17, 1941.)

The article consists of five segments; these include:  statement of the problem, suggestibility and social changes, new technical developments and recent problems of propaganda, German broadcast propaganda in the present war, and national socialist propaganda and propaganda in a democracy.  The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) discusses the “danger of propaganda” in terms of one’s suggestibility, and how techniques are devised to take advantage of it by designing pressure groups to promote propaganda to assert its cause. Kris provides an extensive discussion of suggestibility as it relates to the lack of control of the adult ego, the child in man, the element of persuasion, and the relation of persuasion in the role of the hypnotist and psychotherapist as well as in education.  It is noted that German propaganda utilized aspects of advertising in three ways:  (1) utilization of symbols and repetition of slogans (“copywriting”); (2) assertion of German superiority; (3) the development of attitudes of aggression against any opposition to German ideas through the “canalization of emotions.”

Kris, E.  (1941).  German censorship instructions for the Czech press. Social Research, 8, 238-246.

Kris elucidates the major implications of German censorship instructions issued to the editors of the Czech newspapers on September 25, 1939.  Notable points made are the rigid nature of the instructions especially in the proscription of wording, how the editor supports the “supreme interest of the Reich,” the totality of censorship, and how it encompasses issues of translation, quotation, inferences, advertising as well as games and obituary notices.  Finally, the conflict between Czechs and Germans is examined in terms of why suicides and arrests were not reported.  A summary of the original text, which consisted of nine parts, is provided and it includes:  the role of the press, the Press Control Service (TDS = Tisdova Dozorci Sluzba), responsibility, general principles, extraordinary conditions, the Reich and the Protectorate, economic and social matters, internal forces of the protectorate, and rules of procedure. 

Kris, E.  (1941).  Morale in Germany. American Journal of Sociology, 47, 452-461.

Kris traces issues of group morale beginning with Germany’s defeat in World War I through World War II.  In 1923, in Mein Kampf, Hitler reiterated General von Ludendorff’s justification that the German army was never defeated but instead was conquered by clever Allied and socialist propaganda.  Hence, the German people were involved in one war, which began in 1914, and would soon end.  German home propaganda was used to combat the “weak spots” in German morale; these included:  (1) widespread lack of enthusiasm for the war, (2) dissatisfaction with living conditions resulting from the war, and (3) apprehension about the outcome of the war. 

Kris, E.  (1941).  Probleme der Ästhetik. Internationale  Zeitung für Psychoanalyse und Imago, 26, 142-178.

The article is divided into three parts:  the aesthetic illusion, art and magic, and art and daydreams.  Kris defines aesthetics as the specific role that art plays in society, and the reactions art brings about in society.  For this reason, aesthetics examines an artist’s creative impulses from a historical and sociological perspective.  Although Kris notes Freud’s contribution to the study of aesthetics in terms of elucidating psychic and psychoanalytic aspects, Kris indicates it is not his intent to discuss any direct contributions of psychoanalysis to the study of art.  The aesthetic illusion refers to the play between art and reality in the tradition of Coleridge, Burke, Shelley, and Aristotle, in which one’s ability to test reality is questioned through an aesthetic experience. This point is illustrated in aspects of child’s play and identification with characters in fairy tales; this is similarly accomplished in the adult’s readings of myths. In the second part of the article, Kris discusses art as an imitation of reality to be a form of magic, in which not only is the artist divinely inspired, but more importantly, the line between what is real and what is represented becomes blurred.  In the context of the worship of idols, the primitive individual attributes his innermost feeling to an object, so that the object assumes the character of his innermost belief system and negates any reference to the imitation of reality.  In the final section of the article, Kris notes the significance of daydreams in the tradition of Taine, who considered works of art as windows through which one views reality.

Kris, E.  (1942).  German propaganda instructions of 1933. Social Research, 9,  46-81.

Despite the fact that the document General Instructions for German Agents in North and South America comprises the “master plan” for German propaganda in the western hemisphere, it has rarely been mentioned much less analyzed.  Kris elucidates the unfolding process of German propaganda especially in South America and theUnited States by citing contemporary sources of published German denials as well as published protests on the part of foreign publications.  Three main principles are noted in the Instructions:  (1) propaganda is centralized and is not conducted in a haphazard manner, (2) the enemy’s influence is counteracted by citing hostile information from foreign agencies, (3) a determined attitude on the part of German agents to proselytize the “enemy.” The Appendix contains the document, “The Activities of Section VII of the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda inBerlin.”  It is significant to note German denial of the authenticity of this document has never been made.

Kris, E.  (1942). The imagery of war. The Dayton Art Institute Bulletin, 15.

Kris’ presentation on the imagery of war at the Membership Dinner is printed in this special bulletin.   Although Kris outlines the imagery of war in art through the centuries, his objective is not to give a “historical survey,” but rather to focus on German war films produced during World War II.  Observations of these films indicate Germans at war and their victories as well as the horrors of war, which was specifically intended to intimidate the enemy.   For this reason, German newsreels were successful weapons of propaganda because the films “glorified” war as “beautiful” excluding actual footage of wounded and dead German soldiers. Kris cites the January 15, 1942 radio speech of Dr. Heppler, chief of the Film section of the German Ministry of Propaganda, to illustrate how perpetrated falsehoods in German newsreels were abrogated.

Kris, E.  (1942).   Mass communication under totalitarian governments.  In D. Waples (Ed.). Print, radio and film in a democracy (pp. 14-38). Chicago: University ofChicago Press.

The volume consists of ten papers written by a group of researchers concerned with communications research four months prior to the United States’ declaration of war on the Axis.  The contents comprise several sections:  Government Policy, Effects on Public Opinion, Implications for Social Science, and Implications for Institutions.  Kris indicates in a note “this paper uses material contained in the Daily Digest of Foreign Broadcastspublished as a confidential document by the British Broadcasting Corporation.”  The paper elucidates the differences of how news is presented in a democracy and in a totalitarian regime, more specifically in Nazi Germany.  Such explanations included in the discussion focus on concepts, such as, “advertising,” “the scoop,” “baiting,” “stereotypes,” and “content analysis” of German home newscasts.  A selected reading list and index are provided.

Kris, E., & White, H.  (1944).  German radio home news in wartime.  In P. F. Lazarsfeld (Ed.), Radio Research, (pp. 181- 209).   New York:  Duell, Sloan and Pearch.

In this study, the authors analyze German radio news bulletins, which were broadcasts approximately six to eight times daily for a ten-minute duration.  German news broadcasts consisted of several aspects:  (1) “situational patterns” were used to distort details and figures in the context of proposed enemy military action, (2)  “unfavorable situations” were based on the evasive reporting of events, such as in the Battle of Britain, (3) “special announcements” reported military victories, Hitler’s speeches, or selected foreign papers that conveyed approval of German action, (4) stereotypes were used to vilify the enemy and minority groups, such as the Jews, and (5) planned broadcasts were timed to add hype to a military engagement, manipulate facts, or predict victory.  Finally, the authors discussed the trends and sources of German home news broadcasts documented in graphs.

Kris, E.  (1943). The covenant of the gangsters.  Journal of Criminal Psychopathology, 4, 445-458.

Kris discusses the idealistic and realistic features of the pact between the National Socialists and the German people.  The objective of the article is not to provide a psychological discussion of this pact, but rather to elucidate, through the text of Dr. Goebbels, how German leaders psychologically manipulated the German people.  The ideal of the National Socialists was to reward with loot, those who would defeat any opposition to perpetuate their ideals and to threaten by severely punishing those who would betray their cause. In order to fortify the bond between the National Socialists and the German people, participation in crime was implicit, justified, and made in the anti-Semitic actions of the National Socialists and the deportation of the Jews.  The Jews became the scapegoats of the German people, who attributed their growing demise to the common Jew.  In Civilization and its discontents (1930), Freud noted that the rise of anti-Semitism through the creation of Jews as scapegoats is correlated with the mechanism of projection.

Kris, E.  (1943).  Discussion notes on papers by S. Lorand and C.T. Prout, Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 50, 371-373.  Also in:  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 97,  698-702.

Kris responds to papers presented by Dr. Lorand and Dr. Prout; both papers focused on man’s reaction to war, more specifically, that war “acts as a trigger to psychological reactions.”  Dr. Lorand presented two cases.  In both instances, treatment had started prior to the war, and the reactions were related to infantile conflicts.  With respect to the issue of “pretraumatic personality in war neurosis,” Kris cited a number of studies that discussed the reaction of children to aerial bombing at various ages.  Also mentioned is a study by Ernst Jones, whose findings were further documented by numerous European investigators, that latent homosexuality is correlated with soldiers’ war neuroses.  Kris concluded that pathological reactions are more prevalent among soldiers than civilians because soldiers have less control over their surrounding conditions. 

(On this topic, see: Jones, E. (1929, May). The psychopathology of anxiety, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 9.  Also, Jones, E. (1938). Papers on Psycho-Analysis, (Chapter 20). Baltimore:  William Wood & Company.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Kris, E., Herma, H., & Shor, J.  (1943).   Freud’s theory of the dream in American textbooks.  Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 38, 319-334.

The authors analyzed 248 textbooks on general psychology, twenty-seven on abnormal psychology, and eighty-one on psychiatry in the period 1901-1940.  They focused on the issue of the psychology of the dream in textbooks and not the reaction to Freud’s work on dreams.  The discussion of dreams is discussed in the context of abnormal behavior and the theoretical implications of Freudian theory.  Although Freud’s theories are often rejected, experimental evidence is not provided, and an alternative theory is not offered.

The acceptance of Freud’s dream theory finds greater acceptance in psychiatry, whereas rejection is greatest in textbooks on general psychology. Finally, the acceptance of Freud’s theory is directly correlated with the comprehension of pathology and Freudian theory.  Several graphs and tables summarize the findings, and an appendix consisting of three sections is provided.

Kris, E.  (1943).  Some problems of war propaganda; a note on propaganda new and old. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 12,  381-399.

Kris distinguishes between old and new propaganda based on recent findings.  A discussion of Gustave Le Bon’s book, Psychology of the crowd  (1895), which focuses on a single issue, i.e., the transformation of the individual in a crowd as an aspect of regression. Le Bon’s presentation of this behavior gained popularity in the dynamics of hypnotism by drawing parallels between the propagandist and the crowd with the hypnotist. According to LeBon, the mentality of the crowd is based on hallucinations dominated by a steady supply of illusions created by a leader.  LeBon’s work is readily identified in the propaganda statements of Hitler and Goebbels. The article concludes with a discussion of propaganda in totalitarian and democratic regimes.  For example, the leader’s statements in totalitarian regimes should be fully accepted as the ego ideal, while there exists in democratic regimes a more evenly distributed identification in the ego and superego.

Kris, E.  (1944). Approaches to Art. In S. Lorand(Ed.).  Psychoanalysis Today, (pp.  354-370).New York: InternationalUniversity Press.

Kris indicates there exists no “organized research” on the psychoanalytic study of art and formulates hypotheses pertaining to the problematic study of art.  Although psychoanalysis cannot elucidate an individual’s talents or predilection for the creative arts, it can reveal in which manner art fulfills aspects of an individual’s life.  A significant precondition of all aesthetic experience is distance from immediate gratification as well as an intelligible experience from the observer.  In this instance, the id is in the service of the ego.  During a period of “real madness,” the meaning of the artwork remains unintelligible to a larger audience, and for that reason it is totally subjective in character. In this instance, the ego is ineffective in mastering the id.  As a result, the work of art executed during an episode of “madness” manifests primary process thinking.  References are included.

Kris, E.  (1944). Art and regression. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 6,  236-250.

In this paper, Kris focuses on the art of the insane to discuss the works of three individuals who produced art in psychotic states; these include:  the artist Ernst Josephson (1851-1906), the sculptor Franz Xavier Messerschmidt (1736-1783), and a forty year old architect, who lived in the 1930s. The production of art can be understood in terms of a regression, in which the controlling function of the ego is temporarily suspended; however, in a psychotic state, especially in cases of schizophrenia, there exists an almost total regression, so that the ego is absent.  In such cases, works of psychotic artists are usually primitive in character and lack a link between the artist and the public. This is documented by the studies of Hans Prinzhorn, Bertschinger, Jean Vinchon, and Nolan Lewis.  However, Kris assumes that the “nature of psychotic process” correlates with a “change in creative behavior,” which directly contrasts the opinion of Prinzhorn and others.

Kris, E.  (1944).  Danger and morale.  American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 14, 147-156.

Kris presents popular opinions on the reactions of the British population to German bombardment and the British Expeditionary Force atDunkirk.  Although it was believed that one would develop psychological illness if one’s safety is threatened, it is shown one can adapt to physical threat but not to threats on their psyche. This is in agreement with Freud’s discussion (1926) of the relation between anxiety and danger, and his distinction between objective and imaginary danger.  Imaginary danger creates anxiety, which does not incite protection, but rather encompasses the entire person.  Similarly, there exists objective and neurotic anxiety; the latter type of anxiety usually signifies the presence of a neurotic element.  Kris refers to studies conducted on war neuroses by Cyril Burt, Edward Glover, Aubrey Lewis, Ernst Jones, and A. Kardiner. Jones concluded that war neuroses have their basis in individuals with neurotic predispositions, usually those with homosexual-narcissistic tendencies. Thus, men in the military who have an “unstable libidinal organization,” and are subjected to a harsh and stressful environment tend to react pathologically to combat situations.

Kris, E., & Speier, H.  (1944).  German radio propaganda report on home broadcasts during the war.  New York: OxfordUniversity Press.

This work developed out of the Research Project on Totalitarian Communication at the Graduate Faculty of theNewSchoolfor Social Research on April 1, 1941.  Under the directorship of the two senior authors, the work began in November 1942 and the manuscript completed on July 30, 1943.  The thesis of the project was that the decline of Nazi propaganda would precede the demise of the German army, and it provides insight into how German propagandists presented World War II to the German people.  Since the German war broadcasts could not be retrieved in theU.S., the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) monitored them, and collected them, in the Daily Digest of Foreign Broadcasts.  The volume reflects joint authorship of Americans, Austrians, and Germans from various backgrounds, including sociologists, psychologists, political scientists, and historians.  It contains charts of the broadcasts, a calendar of the war, a list of Research Papers, and an index.

Kris, E.  (1945).  Designed for the Germans. Public Opinion Quarterly,  213-214.

In this brief article, Kris reviews Lindley Fraser’s book, Germany Between Two Wars, A Study of Propaganda and War Guilt.  Fraser broadcasted toGermany from 1939 until the end of the war.  The objective of his book was twofold:  first, to demonstrate to the German people how they were misled by the propaganda of the National Socialist regime, and second, to provide British and American officers with an intellectual understanding of German culture.  Fraser provides a wealth of documentation to refute National Socialist propaganda arguments dating back to 1918 and up to 1944.  Although Kris points out that Fraser emphasizes how intelligent and educated Germans accepted the National Socialist doctrine, he criticizes Fraser’s treatment of the Franco-British appeasement in the 1930s.

Kris, E., & Hartmann, H.  (1946). The genetic approach in psychoanalysis. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2, 1-22.  This article was also published in  (1946) Yearbook of Psychoanalysis, 2, 1-22. 

The word “psychoanalysis” comprises three things:  (1) a therapeutic technique known as psychoanalytic therapy; (2) an observational method known as the psychoanalytic interview; and (3) a body of hypotheses, which are reserved for the term psychoanalysis.  Within the body of hypotheses, the authors focus on a discussion of two propositions; these include: (1) the dynamic, which refers to an individual’s internal conflicts and their relation to the external world and (2) the genetic, which refers to any condition developed out of an individual’s past to continue throughout one’s life. It is maintained that a prediction of human behavior is most positive when both dynamic and genetic propositions are investigated. Although clinical observation indicates that there exists emphasis on genetic propositions, objections to their value have been indicated by Carl G. Jung and Karen Horney as well as Harald Schultz-Hencke, Henry Stack Sullivan, and Thompson, who also objected to the technique of psychoanalytic therapy.  The movement from suggestive therapy to an emphasis on permitting the ego to “relive the past” was initiated in the 1920s by Wilhelm Reich and then continued by Anna Freud, Otto Fenichel, Edward Glover, and others.  Despite these approaches, the authors contend that the psychoanalytic interview provides the best source of data pertaining to genetic propositions.  It is indicated that “objective verification” of propositions under controlled conditions as developed by Sears was significant.  However, limitations of the experimental situation were demonstrated by revealing the inability to verify the interaction of dynamic and genetic propositions.  Although Kurt Lewin’s field theory or method reveals similarities with the interdependent factors found in psychoanalysis, it does not provide a reliable method to “test the properties of a situation at a given time.”  The authors conclude it is necessary to supplement data from the psychoanalytic interview with data, such as the conditions of an event and under what circumstances an event occurred.  For this reason, the relation of the individual to his environment is significant, because psychoanalysis, as Freud maintained, regards the individual as a social being as part of the world, and not existing in isolation.  References are included.

Kris, E.  (1945).  Public opinion and world order.  In G. Murphy (Ed.).  Human nature and enduring peace (pp. 402-408). Boston:  Houghton Mifflin.

Participants, who answered a group of questions on public opinion and world order, included:  Jerome Bruner, Gerhart Saenger, Harold Lasswell, H.H. Remmers, and Ernst Kris.  Kris responded to the question:  What can the analysis of international mass communication contribute toward a more stable world organization? Despite the fact that surveys of public opinion in response to communication surveys have improved, Kris notes that there exist errors to relate the influence of communication with opinion formation in several ways.  (1) significant differences exist between commercial advertising and propaganda; (2) many opinions are formulated early in life, so it is important to consider the relationship between education and mass communication; (3) in order to predict opinion in response to information, the response of specific people to information must be considered.  However, information disseminated to international organizations can act as a “communication” not only to satisfy immediate interests, but also to promote a “stable world order.”  Finally, public opinion polls in democracies have become instruments of public education. 

Kris, E., Hartmann, H., & Loewenstein, R. M.  (1946). Comments on the formation of psychic structure. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2, 11-38.

The authors discuss the formation of psychic structure in terms of ego development and superego formation pertaining to issues of maturation and thereby exclude concern with the stages and manifestations of libidinal development. They contend ego and id are formed during an “undifferentiated phase,” which coincides with maturation.  On the other hand, superego formation is a function of the development of a stage of intellectual life, and is the result of identification and societal pressures not maturation.   References are included.      

Kris, E.  (1946).  Notes on the psychology of prejudice. The English Journal, 35, 304-308.

Kris discusses the unique role of the educator in democratic society to fight against prejudice.  Although cultural ideals are rooted in traditions and customs, the real threat of prejudice to a society is manifested in the intrusion of a group that undermines and deprives the existing group of social mobility.  Cohesion of the new group is maintained either by rallying for a common ideal or directing hostility against a common enemy, usually a minority, which is used as a scapegoat and is often satanized.  Malcontents tend to use the mechanism of projection by attributing their “negative values” on the scapegoat in order to escape unresolved personal conflicts.  It is the task of the educator to foster a mutual understanding between groups for two reasons:  first, to understand why one is prejudiced toward a group, and second, to understand the reaction of the prejudiced group.

Kris, E., &  Pappenheim, E.  (1946). The function of drawings and the meaning of the ‘creative spell’ in a schizophrenic artist,  Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 15,  6-31.

The authors both acknowledge that psychiatric interest in the art of the insane focuses on the “relationship of genius and insanity.”  Although some authors have used the art of psychotics simply for illustrative purposes, Hans Prinzhorn used “experimental methods for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.” Although the majority of asylum patients who express themselves artistically are schizophrenics, Prinzhorn indicates that less than two percent of this population ever turned to artistic production. Characteristic of schizophrenic imagery is:  ‘horror vacui,’ stereotyped and rigid shapes, excessive growth or development of bodily parts (hypertrophy), identification with the Divine as well as being a tool of the Divine.  The “creative spell” is usually observed during the course of an illness and subsides after remission, but it is never displayed during an acute psychotic attack. Despite the artistic production, usually in the form of drawings, the patient has not produced a work of art, because there exists no attempt to communicate with an audience; the drawings depict split parts and condensed images interspersed with handwritten notations. Furthermore, the psychotic does not proceed through trial and error to develop a style. The authors present a psychiatric case history of an artist to illustrate that there exists a change in the function of artistic activity, which must be examined within the context of a delusional system.  Ten illustrations are included. 

Brenman, M.  [Chmn.], et al.  (1946).   Problems in clinical research; round table.  American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 17, 196-230.

Four papers were presented by Lawrence S. Kubie, Henry A. Murray, Ernst Kris, Margaret Brenman, and Merton Gill; a discussion followed. The papers focused on whether sound methodological principles had been or could be established by those involved in clinical research. Kris’ remarks are based on “psychoanalysis not as a therapeutic technique but as a body of hypotheses”, which require clarification, verification, and amplification based solely on the psychiatric interview.  The hypotheses established by the psychiatric interview are at best ambiguous, especially in the case of genetic propositions, and they require verification by more scientific methods and other types of observations.  

Kris, E., & Leites, N.  (1947).  Trends in twentieth century propaganda. In G. Roheim (Ed.).  Psychoanalysis and the social sciences (pp. 393-409). New York: InternationalUniversity Press.

The authors cite Harold Lasswell’s definition of acts of propaganda “as attempts to influence attitudes of large numbers of people on controversial issues of relevance to a group” and focus on the differences in propaganda in totalitarian and democratic governments during the two World Wars.  They are unable, however, to provide any data to demonstrate in quantitative methods their hypotheses.  The thesis of this article is that the difference in propaganda styles in both World Wars was based on tendencies towards distrust and privatization.  A distinction between critical distrust and projective distrust is made; the former refers to one’s adjustment to reality, while the latter is the result of ambivalence and an expression of hostility.  Privatization refers to the “hostility between the individual and leadership of the group” based on skepticism. Propaganda elicits identification from the individual with the propagandists; however, their manifestation from a psychological viewpoint differs in totalitarian and democratic regimes.  In a totalitarian regime, propaganda appeals to id and superego functions, so that identification gratifies impulses, and the propagandist assumes the role of omnipotence and infallibility.  In a democratic regime, the individual’s ego functions remain intact to maintain a critical attitude. 

Kris, E.  (1947).  The nature of psychoanalytic propositions and their validation.  In S. Hook and M. R. Konvits (Eds.).  Freedom and Experience.  Essays presented to Horace Kallen.  (pp.  239-259). Ithaca,NY: CornellUniversity Press.

In this article, Kris discusses how psychoanalytic propositions can “make the scientific study of human conflict possible” by distinguishing between dynamic and genetic propositions.  Dynamic propositions refer to individual conflict in relation to external events during a short period of time; genetic propositions refer to a condition in the context of an individual’s past and one’s life span.  The validation of psychoanalytic propositions is achieved through the psychoanalytic interview; the experimental procedure is subject to scrutiny because not all psychoanalytic propositions are subject to verification.  However, successful experimental approaches are seen in the work of Bergmann, 1943; Mowrer and Kluckhohn, 1944 and McV.Hunt, 1941.

Kris, E.  (1947, July).  Training in psychoanalysis and the development of theoretical concepts of clinical psychology. Transactions of the First Conference, Training in clinical psychology, March 27-28, 1947, Journal of Clinical Psychology, Monograph Supplement, 3, 61-64.

Psychoanalysis is defined as the relation between dynamic and genetic propositions, i.e, how existing conflict is resolved in terms of its origin of one’s personal history. Clinical psychology refers to a set of diagnostic procedures based on a variety of tests; however, no specific “test” is defined. For this reason, the “methods of quantification” used by clinical psychologists are advantageous to psychoanalysts, who are interested in the outcome of their patients exposed to the therapeutic process. Although the clinical psychologist focuses on dynamic propositions, Kris believes that didactic analysis in the training of clinical psychologists will reduce the sharp division between either proposition by focusing on a patient’s developmental trends. 

Kris, E., & Kaplan, A.  (1948).  Esthetic ambiguity. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 8, 415-435.   Also in:  Psychoanalytic explorations in art, Chapter 10.

The authors indicated shortcomings in William Empson’s treatment of ambiguity in poetry in three ways:  (1) a discussion of the types of ambiguity; (2) their relation in the context of an esthetic experience; and (3) methods of interpretation. The word “ambiguity” is used to refer to a range of responses, not to a specific meaning of a symbol, and can be understood in terms of disjunctive (additive) and conjunctive (integrative) aspects. Disjunctive ambiguity refers to “when separate meanings function in the process of interpretation as alternatives, excluding and inhibiting each other.” Examples of disjunctive ambiguity are:  homonyms, the oracle, and the early stages of dream interpretation, while the analysis of the dream is characteristic of conjunctive ambiguity.  Hence, conjunctive ambiguity is defined as when antithetical responses are evoked simultaneously, for example in the use of irony.  That is, ambiguity is also conjunctive when several meanings are condensed to “evoke” a “stimulus-response” relationship between each meaning(s).  Projective ambiguity refers to minimal clusters of meanings, thereby, identified as significantly “vague.”  In the context of the arts, the existence of conditions in terms of how a problem is to be solved is minimal.  For this reason, creativity is characterized by a relaxation or regression of ego functions and permits “primary process” thinking and ambiguity to assume prominent roles.  Ambiguity is expressive when it is psychological and not restricted to a particular style, school, or genre.  Finally, the methods of interpretation are based on stringencies, such as subject matter, the genesis of the work of art either in terms of sociological or biographical aspects, and the relation of a work of art to an oeuvre.

 Kris, E.  (1948).  Prince Hal’s conflict. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 17,  487-506.

Kris outlines historical events found in British chronicles and popular accounts from which Shakespeare deviated to portray the father-son conflict in the character of Prince Hal (later King Henry V). Prince Hal’s conflict is depicted in the shift from his debauchery to royal aspirations as a reaction to his patricidal impulses against his father, the King, who acquired the crown through regicide.  From a psychoanalytic viewpoint, the character of Prince Hal illustrates the formation of conscience as well as the displacement of libidinal needs onto a father substitute. Although Prince Hal identifies with Falstaff, a hedonist, the Prince rescues the King from his adversary and kills Falstaff, the Prince’s alter-ego and father substitute.

Kris, E.  (1948).  On psychoanalysis and education.  American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 18,  622-635. (Presented at the 1948 Annual Meeting)

Kris outlines the complex relationship between psychoanalysis and education.  Education is defined as the adult’s effort to influence desirable behavior in the growing child; psychoanalysis is defined as a set of propositions and not the therapeutic technique. Since psychoanalytic propositions seek to indicate why individuals behave in certain ways, educators look to these propositions in an effort to achieve positive behavior in the educational setting. However, the educator misunderstands the psychoanalytic concepts of indulgence and deprivation in the process of education.  John Dewey and others contributed to the change in how indulgence and deprivation were viewed in the educational area, i.e., a manifestation of a decrease in frustration with an increase in indulgence in the child’s life.  It is further noted that modality and timing of these concepts assumes greater importance in meeting a child’s needs.  The balance of these concepts can be summarized as follows:  indulgence seeks to reduce tension by gratifying id impulses, while deprivation (discipline) permits the ego to assume control of the id.  Although it has been observed how environment can meet or miss a child’s basic needs, little attention has been given to a child’s ego development in the context of various cultural backgrounds, his inner world, and other factors such as reality, fantasy, and conscious and repressed memories.

Kris, E.  (1948).   Panel on application of analytic concepts to social science. Bulletin of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 4,  9-14.

As Reporter for the Committee on Social Issues, Kris summarizes the presentations of Talcott Parsons, Heinz Hartmann, and Raymond de Saussaure; the session focused on the need for methodological clarification resulting from psychoanalyst’s study of social issues.  Parsons discusses the relation between psychoanalysis and the social sciences- more specifically delineating personality from social structure.  For Parsons, the psychoanalytic approach, in the context of social structure, determines the study of “individual motivation.”  Hartmann elucidates Parsons’ points by focusing on the “relation of social structure and personality types” by introducing the concept of social compliance.  Hartmann concludes that individuals attribute their internal conflicts on aspects of society.   Finally, de Saussaure relates personality structure to social change.  In the context of the presentations, Kris concludes the need for differentiation between the biological and sociological aspects as they relate to psychoanalytic practice. 

Kris, E. (Reporter). (1948).  Panel on technical implications of ego psychology and character analysis. Bulletin of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 5,  40-43.

Participating discussants included:  Heinz Hartmann, Ernst Kris, Richard F. Sterba, Emanuel Windholz, Merton M. Gill, Raymond de Saussure, Rudolph M. Loewenstein, and George Gero. The development of ego psychology was discussed from its Freudian origins up to present trends.  Bibring’s survey focuses on Freud’s concept of the ego beginning with his Papers on defense and concluding with Freud’s “structure of the psychic apparatus.”  While the panel agreed with Hartmann for the need to systematize analytic experiences in terms of therapeutic technique and action, Kris noted that the issues surrounding resistance to the development of analytic material remains problematic, especially in the context of achieving insight. Finally, Hartmann suggested the need to investigate ego functions as they relate to each other, i.e., those in conflict versus those free from conflict. 

Kris, E., Hartmann, H., & Loewenstein, R. M.  (1949).  Notes on the theory of aggression.  The  Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 3-4,  9-36.

The authors examine Freud’s theory of aggression, which was formulated roughly around 1911, and re-formulated up until 1926, in order to present the opportunity to compare psychoanalytic theories with empirical findings and thereby permit one to either validate or refute future propositions.  A discussion of the terms “libido” and “aggression” is provided, as well as the genetic aspect of the terms in the context of psychosexual development.  Four types of conflict can thwart aggression:  (1) when aggression and libido are in conflict, (2) endangerment of an individual by an aggressive act, (3) aversion of an aggressive act by ego intervention, and (4) aversion of an aggressive act due to a moral issue. It is demonstrated that internalization of aggression is necessary for the formation of the superego and that a strong ego is needed to neutralize aggressive impulses.

Kris, E.  (1949).  The objective evaluation of psychotherapy, Round Table, 1948.American Journal Orthopsychiatry, 19,  463-491.

Chaired by Augusta F. Bronner, participants and the issues addressed were:  Lawrence S. Kubie (Scope of the Problem), Ives Hendrick (Objective Evaluation of the Therapist), Ernst Kris (Discussion), David Shakow (The Evaluation of the Procedure), H.W. Brosin (Discussion), Paul Bergman (The Evaluation of the Patient), Edward Bibring (Discussion).  Based on Snyder’s July1947 article, “The Present Status of Psychotherapeutic Counseling (Psychological Bulletin), Bronner indicates the need for objective methods to evaluate studies in therapy because up to this point in time, there exists no reliable or valid study of any phase of therapy pertaining to any number of diagnoses. Kris focuses on the education and training in psychiatry and suggests modification of the medical curriculum to expand it in other areas, but without specifying them. In addition, Kris advocates self-analysis as an integral part of the psychotherapist’s evaluation as well as a necessary part of psychotherapeutic work.

Kris, E.  (1949).  (Reporter).  Theories of psychoanalysis – Group discussion. Bulletin of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 5 (3),  69-75.

The panel consists of two meetings.  The first focuses on the assumption that Freud’s writings reveal phases that have never been systematized with clinical findings and therefore raises doubts about his theories.  The objective of the group is to synchronize and adjust Freud’s psychoanalytic theories with new findings through “emendations.”  The need for emendations was demonstrated in Bibring’s paper on “The Theory of Instinctual Drives.”  Hartmann’s paper focuses on the following emendations: (1) maturation plays a significant role in ego development,(2) narcissism should be understood as the distinction between the “cathexis of the self and cathexis of the ego,” (3) the mechanism of defense acts as a counter-cathexis to neutralize aggressive energy between the ego and id, and (4) the relationship between ego functions. The second session focuses on Kris’ paper on “Preconscious Mental Processes” and Rapaport’s paper on “Psychoanalytic Theory of Thinking.”  While Rapaport discussed the “development of thinking as an ego function,” Kris raised the question as to why some preconscious thoughts achieve consciousness either with ease or difficulty.

Kris, E.  (1949).  Roots of hostility and prejudice.  In Community Service Society of New York, The family in a democratic society (pp. 141-155). New York: ColumbiaUniversity Press.

Contributors included:  Ernst Kris, Clyde Kluckhohn, Ernst H. Peirce, and Ernst Osborn.  The papers focused on two topics:  (1) human sciences and the family, and (2) health and the family.  In his article, Kris focuses on the roots of hostility and prejudice from sociological and psychoanalytic viewpoints.  In the first instance, any given socio-economic situation with a set of social values will attract certain personality types who will determine the institutional design of government. For example, the National Socialists attracted individuals with pathological traits to design a government to practice violence towards others to compensate for failure in their own lives.  In this context, prejudice is the result of the individual’s attribution of hostile impulses toward a minority, usually a scapegoat, in order to alleviate personal conflict. The second half of the article focuses on how the study of aggressive impulses can lead to an understanding between social change and incidence of hostility based on the assumption made by Freud at different points in time and in different contexts. For example, frustrating experiences are not always the cause of aggression because experimental findings have shown that insecurity and anxiety will also cause aggressive behavior.  In this section, Kris provides an outline of these psychoanalytic assumptions through discussion of child development.

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